Wafeeq Sabir. Ph.D
Psychoanalysis founder, Sigmund Freud noted that the human personality is divided into three parts, the id, ego, and superego; each part developing at different times but contributing to the overall welfare of the individual. An explanation of criminality suggests that when the superego is not strong enough to correct the impulsive desires of the id, deviance and criminal behavior results. Freud’s psychoanalytical approach to this issue is known as displaced aggression (Henslin, 2002). The concept of displaced aggression allows for the outward expression of aggression upon the source of unhappiness. Individuals often redirect their anger towards other targets that are less likely to fight back or offer resistance. Displaced aggression offers an understanding of a motive for prejudice and a strong opinion of why individuals may focus their anger towards innocent bystanders (Taylor et al., 2000). School safety experts and researchers continue to search for a reasonable explanation for youth violence. Social learning perspectives suggest an imperfect society while psychoanalytical perspectives suggest an imbalanced psyche (Barkan, 2001). The reality is that no one theory totally explains why some individuals treasure life, while others resort to gun violence and murder (Glazer, 2003).
Barkan, S. E. (2001). Criminology: A sociological understanding (2nd ed.). Upper Saddleriver, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Glazer, S. (2003, October 31). Serial killers, CQ Researcher, 13(38), 917-940.
Henslin, J. M. (2002). Essentials to sociology: A down-to-earth approach. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Taylor, S. E., Peplau, L. A., & Sears, D. O., (2000). Social psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.